Sunday, 31 December 2017

Happy New Year 2018

Wishing all of the people
a very happy new year
May all your dreams for
which you work, gets

Inner self

We cannot differentiate each
and everyone. Because in one
short line I'll say from deep 
Inner self we all are same.
We all are child of almighty,
commuting varying degrees 
of mistakes. But God gives us
a chance every time.
So believe in the Almighty and
that's the one and only. 💚

Sunday, 13 November 2016

Actual living

We tend to choose the path of what
we are forced by the world to work
But, you all know that we should opt
for later time the work that suits us.

Time changes everything or you may
say that everything changes with time
nothing remains as it is.

Now coming on the living beings, we
humans have got the most intellectual
brain, and this intellectuality, upon large
amount worldly concerns leads humans
to do work which is not actually suited
to them.

So, now to finalize what i am saying is
that leave everything any kind of burden,
mental pressure.
Just think of that one, self creating force,
that non existent entity, yet the one which
is controlling all, beyond time.

You may feel that no one is there, but the
force is listening you with each passing

Saturday, 1 October 2016

Simple body fat detection via thermal technique!

Ever wondered how to know that exactly which of your body region is having high fat content? 
Then there is one way by which you can know about this and i guarantee that this is 99.9% correct way to know about this and that to without using any device. 

The best method to detect fat affected region is just simply by touching that region and the temperature of that region will be lower than the surrounding region. 

Because the fatty regions is always colder; lower temperature, than the other region; region with regular body muscle content. 

SolidWorks: True vs Projected Dimensions

A really important part to be known by all designers on True Dimension and Projected Dimension.

Thursday, 18 August 2016

Sunshine, seaweed help to break down dye waste

Sunshine, seaweed help to break down dye waste:

The researchers developed a photocatalyst using titanium dioxide doped with red seaweed polymer carrageenan to degrade the dyes.
Scientists at the Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSMCRI), Bhavanagar, Gujarat have been able to completely degrade three industrial dyes — methyl orange, methylene blue and reactive black-5 — in the presence of sunlight.
The researchers developed a photocatalyst using titanium dioxide doped with red seaweed polymer carrageenan to degrade the dyes. The results were published recently in the journal RSC Advances.
Despite stringent environmental regulations, a comprehensive method of treating industrial dye is not available. The methods available are expensive and do not completely break down the dye molecules to non-toxic constituents but merely concentrate the contaminants.
“Annually, more than 500 tonnes of non-degradable textile colour wastes are being disposed of in natural streams without adequate treatments,” the paper says.
Titanium dioxide has conventionally been used for photocatalytic degradation of industrial dyes, but it takes a long time to degrade dyes. So the researchers doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles with sulphur and carbon by treating it with carrageenan.
The nanocomposite was found to behave as an excellent photocatalyst that helped degrade industrial dyes quickly in a single-step process.
“The energy required to activate the catalyst is less when it is doped and this makes the dye degradation faster,” says Dr. Ramavatar Meena, the senior author of the paper from CSMCRI.
Solar concentrator used
Unlike a commercial titanium-dioxide-based catalyst that did not clear the dye solutions, the photocatalyst prepared in the lab was found to degrade the dyes when exposed to direct sunlight between noon and 2 pm during May-July.
“The Titanium-dioxide-doped photocatalyst degraded reactive black-5 and methylene blue in about one-and-half hours and 60 per cent of methyl orange in two hours,” says Dr. Meena. “Visible light is mainly responsible for degradation; ultraviolet radiation intensity was just 3 per cent.”
When a solar concentrator was used, the degradation process was hastened. “Reactive black-5 and methylene blue degraded within five minutes and methyl orange degraded completely in 20 minutes,” says Dr. Meena. There was no significant colour change in the case of control titanium dioxide sample that was not doped.
“When a solar concentrator is used the intensity of visible light is more and this plays an important role in the degradation process,” says Jai Prakash Chaudhary, the first author of the paper from CSMCRI.
The researchers are planning to conduct studies during winter to assess the photocatalyst’s ability to break down the dyes when bright sunlight is not available.
The nanocomposites are thermally stable and can be reused up to six times with the degradation efficiency remaining at over 97 per cent.
The nanocomposite photocatalyst can safely and completely treat harmful dyes in an eco-friendly and cost-effective manner, the study said.

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

New Nanoparticle Catalysts Improve Reactivity with Much Less Platinum

New Nanoparticle Catalysts Improve Reactivity with Much Less Platinum:

A sample of a core-shell nanoparticle made by the researchers is shown in images made using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Color images show where the different elements are located in the particle, with the precious metals platinum (Pt) and ruthenium (Ru) concentrated in the shell, and the other constituents, tungsten (W), and titanium (Ti), concentrated in the core.

Using an atomically-thin coating of noble metal over a tiny particle made of a much more abundant and inexpensive material, MIT engineers have developed new nanoparticle catalysts that could reduce need for precious metals.
Materials that speed up a chemical reaction without getting consumed in the process, known as catalysts, lie at the heart of many technologies, from vehicle emissions-control systems to high-tech devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. Unfortunately, catalysts are often pricey because they typically contain one or more noble metals, such as platinum or palladium, whose supplies are limited.
Now, researchers at MIT have found a potential end-run around this limitation: a way to get the same amount of catalytic activity with as little as one-tenth the amount of precious metal.
The key is to use an atomically-thin coating of noble metal over a tiny particle made of a much more abundant and inexpensive material: a kind of ceramic called transition metal carbide. While this idea has been the subject of extensive research, nobody had been able to find a way to get the coating to adhere to the underlying material, until now. And as a bonus, the coated particles actually outperform conventional catalysts (made completely of noble metal nanoparticles), providing greater longevity and better resistance to many unwanted phenomena that plague traditional noble metal catalysts.
The new finding is being reported this week in the journal Science, in a paper by MIT doctoral student Sean Hunt, postdocs Maria Milina and Christopher Hendon, and Associate Professor Yuriy Román-Leshkov of the Department of Chemical Engineering.
Since only the surface of catalytic particles is involved in accelerating a reaction, substituting the bulk of the particle with an inexpensive core can lead to drastic reductions in noble metal use without sacrificing performance.
MIT Researchers Develop New Nanoparticle Catalysts
A simulation of the core-shell structure shows the arrangement of the different elements as they have separated themselves into the two regions.
“For a long time, many researchers have been trying to find ways to make stable coatings of noble metals over earth-abundant cores,” Román-Leshkov says. “There has been some success using metallic cores like nickel and cobalt, but the particles are not stable over long periods of time and end up alloying with the noble metal shell.” Carbides, on the other hand, are resistant to corrosion and clustering, and also cannot alloy with noble metals, making them ideal core candidates.
But noble metals – which get their name from their general reluctance to take part in any kind of chemical activity – don’t easily bond with other materials, so producing coatings from them has been an elusive goal. At the same time, transition metal carbides are extremely difficult to engineer into nanoparticles with controlled properties. This is because they need high temperatures to force carbon into the metal lattice, which leads to particle clumping and surfaces contaminated with excess carbon layers.
The key breakthrough, Hunt says, was to encapsulate the shell and core material precursors into a template made from silica. “This keeps them close together during the heat treatment, making them self-assemble into core-shell structures, conveniently solving both challenges at the same time,” he says. The silica template could then be dissolved away using a simple room-temperature acidic treatment.
In addition to greatly reducing the amount of precious metal required, the process turned out to have other important benefits as well.
“We found that the self-assembly process is very general,” says Hunt. “The reluctance of noble metals to bind to other materials means we could self-assemble incredibly complex catalytic designs with multiple precious metal elements present in the shell and multiple inexpensive elements present in the carbide core.” This allowed the researchers to fine-tune the properties of the catalysts for different applications.
For instance, using a nanoparticle with a platinum and ruthenium shell coating a carbide core made of tungsten and titanium, they designed a highly active and stable catalyst for possible applications in direct methanol fuel cells. After the catalyst was put through 10,000 electrochemical cycles, the new design still performed 10 times better than conventional nanoparticles after similar cycling.
Yet another gain is that these nanoparticles are highly resistant to a problem that can plague other forms of noble-metal catalysts: “poisoning” of the surface by carbon monoxide. “This molecule can drastically curtail the performance of conventional catalysts by bonding to their surface and blocking further interaction, but on the core-shell catalysts, the carbon monoxide detaches more easily,” Román-Leshkov says. While traditional hydrogen fuel cell catalysts can only tolerate 10 parts per million (ppm) of carbon monoxide, the researchers found that their core-shell catalysts could tolerate up to 1,000 ppm.
Lastly, the researchers found that the core-shell structure was stable at high temperatures under various types of reaction conditions, while also remaining resistant to particle clumping. “Whereas in other classes of core-shell nanoparticles the shell dissolves into the core over time, noble metal shells are insoluble in carbide cores,” says Hunt. “This is just another one of the many benefits that ceramic cores can have in designing active and stable catalysts.”
Although work for the translation of the new concept into a commercializable form is still preliminary, in principle it could make a big difference to applications such as fuel cells, where “it would overcome one of the main limitations that fuel cells are facing right now,” Román-Leshkov says, namely the cost and availability of the needed precious metals. In fact, with the assistance of MIT’s Translational Fellows Program, Milina has been focusing on the commercial aspects of the technology, identifying the potential market, value, and customers for these novel materials.
“This is an important discovery regarding the potential applications of core-shell carbide particles coated with precious metal layers,” says Jingguang Chen, a professor of chemical engineering at Columbia University, who was not involved in this work. “It would significantly reduce the amount of precious metals needed, and it could show better catalytic performance due to the synergistic interactions between the precious metal coating and the carbide core,” he says. “Even though these advantages were predicted from previous studies of thin-film model systems, the current study demonstrates the feasibility of potential commercial applications using core shell structures.”
The research team also included Ana Alba-Rubio and James Dumesic at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.
Publication: Sean T. Hunt, et al., “Self-assembly of noble metal monolayers on transition metal carbide nanoparticle catalysts,” Science 20 May 2016: Vol. 352, Issue 6288, pp. 974-978; DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8471
Source: David L. Chandler, MIT News