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Sunday, 24 January 2021

espresso machines

An espresso machine brews coffee by forcing pressurized water near boiling point through a "puck" of ground coffee and a filter in order to produce a thick, concentrated coffee called espresso. The first machine for making espresso was built and patented in 1884 by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy. An improved design was patented on April 28, 1903, by Luigi Bezzera. The founder of the La Pavoni company bought the patent and from 1905 produced espresso machines commercially on a small scale in Milan. Multiple machine designs have been created to produce espresso. Several machines share some common elements, such as a grouphead and a portafilter. An espresso machine may also have a steam wand which is used to steam and froth liquids (such as milk) for coffee drinks such as cappuccino and caffe latte. Espresso machines may be steam-driven, piston-driven, pump-driven, or air-pump-driven. Machines may also be manual or automatic.

Saturday, 23 January 2021

best coffee machine for home india

Best Coffee Machines in India 1. Morphy Richards New Europa 800-Watt Espresso and Cappuccino 4-Cup Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon This is one efficient appliance that helps you get your caffeine fix anytime. It puts your professional grade espresso or cappuccino within your stride in minutes. Morphy Richards New Europa 800-Watt Espresso and Cappuccino 4-Cup Coffee Maker Built & Design Makes cappuccino, latte, and espresso Good for up to 4 cups 2-year warranty Power: 800 watts; operating voltage: 230 volts Performance: Morphy Richards New Europa 800-Watt Espresso and Cappuccino 4-Cup Coffee Maker is all that you need at your home. This machine is a multi-tasker that get you coffee as you like it. You can use any blend you like. It has a mean motor but lacks proper space for water to get in so you may need a manual pressing. Pros Anti -slip base so that you don’t have to worry about a kitchen slip. Heat resistant glass carafe so there are no blow ups. Non slip grip. So that you don’t break your carafe. Easy to clean Neon light Indicator 800 W Motor Cons Water Indicator is missing 2. InstaCuppa French Press Coffee Espresso Tea Maker Check Price at Amazon If you want best morning coffee, espresso you need this. It is one of the best budget coffee makers available. It could serve six cups of coffee in one go. So, no more refilling and waiting for the coffee you are craving for. InstaCuppa French Press Coffee Espresso Tea Maker Built & Design Stainless steel body which gives it a rugged exterior Elegant and stylish design FDA approved 600 ml capacity Performance: This is by far the most budget friendly machine on offer. Easy to use and hassle free. It is a great apparatus for someone starting anew. Pros Plunger mechanism is smooth and easy to use. Dishwasher safe Borosilicate glass and steel exoskeleton makes it durable Can make 6 cups in a brew. Elegant design Can also be used to brew tea. Cons Coffee beans need to be pre ground. You need to keep track of brew time; else you get bitter tasting coffee. 3. Philips Daily Collection HD7434/20 0.92-Litre Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon Philips is the go to brands in home appliance space. It is trusted by buyers across generations. The Philips HD7431/20 0.92 Coffee Maker (Black/Metal) is an efficient drip coffee maker with some unique features. The design and styling of the machine is pleasing to the eyes. Philips Daily Collection HD7434/20 0.92-Litre Coffee Maker Built & Design AromaSwirl for optimal aroma distribution Drip brewing Capacity of 0.92 Litres Total Brewing time approx. 10 minutes Power by a 700 watt motor and works with 230 volt supply 2-year Warranty Performance: The Philips HD7431/20 0.92 Coffee Maker (Black/Metal) is perfect for making drip coffee and can make 4 to 5 cups in one go. It makes sure that you get consistent quality brew every single time. The coffee flask is detachable which makes cleaning it effortless. Pros Lightweight ergonomic design Elegant and stylish Friendly to the Pocket Easy to use. Dishwasher safe Cons It gets quite noisy at the end of the brewing process. The Brew may feel watery; add enough coffee for better results. 4. Preethi Cafe Zest Drip Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon Preethi Cafe Zest Drip Coffee Maker (CM210) is a great coffee machine to prepare café grade coffee at home. It is packed with a powerful heater that helps expedite the brewing process. It also has a nifty look. Preethi Cafe Zest CM210 Drip Coffee Maker Built & Design Water level indicator Anti-drip system Heat sensitive shock proof ABS body. Power: 450 watts; operating voltage: 230 volts 1 Year Warranty Designer Handle Performance: Preethi Cafe Zest Drip Coffee Maker (CM210 is a compact machine with a powerful motor that delivers great tasting coffee. This Desi brand is not only efficient but has invested in your safety as it comes with ABS shock proof plastic body. It is just the appliance for household brewing adventure. Pros Friendly to your pocket Available in a wide range of colors Shockproof ABS body Cons Average built quality 5. Prestige PCMD 1.0 650-Watt Espresso Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon Prestige Drip coffee maker is for the lovers of South Indian filter coffee .It makes great coffee with advance mesh filter , anti-drip mechanism , advanced brewing technology , water level indicator etc. ,you can enjoy the perfect cup of coffee at the comfort of your home , any time , any day . Prestige PCMD 1.0 650-Watt Espresso Coffee Maker Built & Design Advanced mesh filter Elegant and stylish design Anti-drip mechanism Water level indicator FDA approved Power: 650 watts; operating voltage: 230 volts 1 Year Warranty Performance: Prestige is a brand that you can trust and this offering from the house of prestige doesnot disappoint. The company understands India’s love affair with filter coffee and this machine delivers on that front spectacularly. Pros Nifty design. Easy to use and clean Anti-drip valve prevents dripping when the carafe is removed Steam vent for releasing excess steam. Water level indicator Cons Temperature control unavailable Makes noise due to lack of water towards the end of the brewing process. 6. Philips HD7431/20 Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon Philips is the go to brands in home appliance space. It is trusted by buyers across generations. The Philips HD7431/20 Coffee Maker (Black) is an efficient drip coffee maker with some unique features. The design and styling of the machine is pleasing to the eyes. Philips HD7431 Built & Design Hassle-free cleaning Drip brewing Capacity of 0.6 Liters Total Brewing time approx. 10 minutes Power by a 700 watt motor and works with 230 volt supply 2-year Warranty Performance: The Philips HD7431/20 Coffee Maker (Black) is perfect for making drip coffee and can make 3-4 cups in one go. It makes sure that you get consistent quality brew every single time. The coffee flask is detachable which makes cleaning it effortless. Pros Lightweight ergonomic design Elegant and stylish Friendly to the Pocket Easy to use. Cons It gets quite noisy at the end of the brewing process. The Brew may feel watery; add enough coffee for better results. 7. Morphy Richards Fresco 800-Watt 4-Cups Espresso Coffee Maker Check Price at Amazon Morphy Richards Fresco 800-Watt 4-Cups Espresso Coffee Maker is a delight for Espresso aficionados, Make delicious espressos for you and your family in a snap. And get the feel of a Starbucks espress at home. It will also look brilliant in your lovely kitchen. Morphy Richards Fresco 800-Watt 4-Cups Espresso Coffee Maker Built & Design Can make 4 cups with milk frothing Heat resistant with drip tray, so that you worry less about dropping your precious cuppa. The see through glass carafe to relish your brew. Temperature indicator. 2-year warranty. Power: 800 watts; operating voltage: 210-250 volts Performance: The Morphy Richards Fresco 800-Watt 4-Cups Espresso Coffee Maker is for people who like their CCDs and Starbucks espresso with cream on top. Now you don’t need to wait for ages to quench your thirst for espressos. It is a boon for all coffee addicts. Get your coffee fix anytime you feel like. Pros It is elegant and modern in style Professional grade espresso Makes 4-6 cups at a time The milk froth is thick and airy The drip tray makes the machine-accessible Friendly to your pocket Cons You can’t control the temperature Machine not big enough for frothing you need some jugaad. Use a cup instead How to brew the ultimate drink What is the best temperature to brew coffee? The optimal water temperature for drip coffee is 95-98C. water below this temperature doesn’t extract enough caffeine/essential oils from the beans, and above such temperature the acidity increases wildly. Quality of coffee The quality of a brew depends on many factors few are noted below: Time elapsed since the bean is ground (fresher the better). Time elapsed since roasting (again you want is as fresh as you can). Clean brewing equipment, so that you don’t get any residue taste. Quality of your coffee bean. Quality of the water used for brewing. What is the difference between Arabica and Robusta? Arabica and Robusta are two different species of coffee. Almost all the world’s coffee is of one or the other type. The differences are those of taste and conditions of their individual growing patterns. Taste: Arabicas have a wider taste range, between varieties. They range in taste from sweet-soft to sharp-tangy. Their unroasted smell is sometimes likened to blueberries. Their roasted smell is perfumey with fruity notes and sugary tones. Robustas taste range is neutral to harsh and they are often described as tasting grain-like, oatmeally. Their unroasted smell is often described as raw-peanut. Their roasted smell is often likened to burnt rubber. Production Conditions: Arabicas are delicate; they require cool tropical climates, lots of moisture, rich soil, shade and sun. They are subject to attack from various pests, and are extremely vulnerable to cold and bad handling. Robustas are hardier plants, capable of growing well at low altitudes, less subject to problems related to pests and rough handling. They yield more pounds of finished goods per acre at a lower cost of production. You can read the full difference between Arabica and Robusta here. Just how much ground coffee do I need for x amount of coffee? Whatever seems right to you. It may change slightly from coffee to coffee and according to freshness. My personal taste is 1 tablespoon per cup of coffee How to select your coffee machine coffee machine india 1. Bang for the buck It is important that while buying any home appliance you get the most for what you pay. Also, all available products may not fall under your budget. You should always decide in advance your requirements and then chose the appliance that is efficient as well as budget friendly. Here you may find two products with the same features but different price points. Choose the one that gives you most utility. 2. Ease of Use The coffee maker is easy to use does not involve any rocket science. You need to follow certain steps and the rest is done automatically. Some machines come with a timer that lets you know when the coffee is ready using an alarm all you to do is fill the machine up and wait for it to beep 3.The Output It is very important that you know the amount of coffee you will need in one go. Single Cup Coffee Maker This coffee maker can crank up a single cup at one go and is just perfect for a smaller family where people drink coffee at different times. Multi Cup Coffee Maker This coffee maker can prepare about 3-4 cups of coffee at a time and is for those who like to have their coffee with friends and company. 4. Category Indians usually prefer milk in their coffee so latte, cappuccino are often the go-to choices, there is also a growing trend of black coffee drinkers, so we see all this rage about the espresso coffee and hence it is important to identify your preference while shopping. You have a wide range of options there are coffee makers that can do all kinds of coffee and there are some which specialize in one or the other form. Always make sure that you research well into your taste and preferences before making the buy. 5. Safety If an appliance needs the power to run, it is imminent that it has shock proofing mechanisms. Your safety should be of utmost priority. In case of overload, the circuit breaks and the appliance stops working. This factor should never be neglected as overload could lead to chances of shock. 6. Stress-free maintenance Coffee maker jars are generally detachable which make them easy to clean and maintain. Always factor the ease of use and cleaning while researching the product. As difficulty while cleaning will prevent you from using your appliance less often.

Tuesday, 19 January 2021

My life

Since all these years you akready know that i have MS since last 12 years. Indirectly i am a warrior like other MS'ers. More than 2.3 million people have a diagnosis of MS on this planet Earth.

Wednesday, 2 September 2020

It's good to masturbate but not ejaculate guys!

 So, you need to put both your

finger pushing up the common

duct for urine and semen flow.

Thing is you have push upwards

blocking the semen from going


You should have experienced to

climax now, the dopamine hormone

has done it's work by now.

So this way neither you wasted 

your semen nor you lost your

energy like you used to lose


Saturday, 11 July 2020

The best (and worst) materials for masks

The best (and worst) materials for masks

It's intuitive and scientifically shown that wearing a face covering can help reduce the spread of the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. But not all masks are created equal, according to new University of Arizona-led research.
Amanda Wilson, an environmental health sciences doctoral candidate in the Department of Community, Environment and Policy in the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, is lead author on a recent study published in the Journal of Hospital Infection that assessed the ability of a variety of nontraditional mask materials to protect a person from infection after 30 seconds and after 20 minutes of exposure in a highly contaminated environment.
When the researchers compared wearing masks to wearing no protection during 20-minute and 30-second exposures to the virus, they found that infection risks were reduced by 24-94% or by 44-99% depending on the mask and exposure duration. Risk reduction decreased as exposure duration increased, they found.
"N99 masks, which are even more efficient at filtering airborne particles than N95 masks, are obviously one of the best options for blocking the virus, as they can reduce average risk by 94-99% for 20-minute and 30-second exposures, but they can be hard to come by, and there are ethical considerations such as leaving those available for medical professionals," Wilson said.
The next best options, according to the research, are N95 and surgical masks and, perhaps surprisingly, vacuum cleaner filters, which can be inserted into filter pockets in cloth masks. The vacuum filters reduced infection risk by 83% for a 30-second exposure and 58% for a 20-minute exposure. Of the other nontraditional materials evaluated by the researchers, tea towels, cotton-blend fabrics and antimicrobial pillowcases were the next best for protection.
Scarves, which reduced infection risk by 44% after 30 seconds and 24% after 20 minutes, and similarly effective cotton t-shirts are only slightly better than wearing no mask at all, they found.
"We knew that masks work, but we wanted to know how well and compare different materials' effects on health outcomes," said Wilson, who specializes in quantitative microbial risk assessment.
Wilson and her team collected data from various studies of mask efficacy and created a computer model to simulate infection risk, taking various factors into consideration.
"One big component of risk is how long you're exposed. We compared risk of infection at both 30 seconds and 20 minutes in a highly contaminated environment," she said.
Other conditions that impact risk of infection are the number of people around you and their distance from you, she said.
The size of virus-transporting droplets from sneezes, coughs or even speech is also a very important factor. Larger, heavier droplets carrying the virus drop out of the air faster than smaller, lighter ones. That's one reason distance helps reduce exposure.
"Aerosol size can also be affected by humidity," Wilson said. "If the air is drier, then aerosols become smaller faster. If humidity is higher, then aerosols will stay larger for a longer period of time, dropping out faster. That might sound good at first, but then those aerosols fall on surfaces, and that object becomes another potential exposure route."
The study also showed that the more time a person spends in an environment where the virus is present, the less effective a mask becomes.
"That doesn't mean take your mask off after 20 minutes," Wilson said, "but it does mean that a mask can't reduce your risk to zero. Don't go to a bar for four hours and think you're risk free because you're wearing a mask. Stay home as much as possible, wash your hands often, wear a mask when you're out and don't touch your face."
Masks protect the wearer and others in a number of different ways. Wilson said there are two "intuitive ways" that masks filter larger aerosols: mechanical interception and inertial impaction.
"The denser the fibers of a material, the better it is at filtering. That's why higher thread counts lead to higher efficacy. There's just more to block the virus," she said. "But some masks (such as those made from silk) also have electrostatic properties, which can attract smaller particles and keep them from passing through the mask as well."
The model developed by Wilson and her colleagues included parameters such as inhalation rate -- the volume of air inhaled over time -- and virus concentration in the air.
"We took a lot of research data, put it into a mathematical model and related those data points to each other," Wilson said. "For example, if we know people's inhalation rates vary by this much and know this much virus is in the air and these materials offer this much efficiency in terms of filtration, what does that mean for infection risk? We provide a range, in part, because everyone is different, such as in how much air we breathe over time."
Wilson also said it's important for a mask to have a good seal that pinches at nose, and she noted that people shouldn't wear a mask beneath the nose or tuck it under the chin when not in use.
"Proper use of masks is so important," Wilson said. "Also, we were focusing on masks protecting the wearer, but they're most important to protect others around you if you're infected. If you put less virus out into the air, you're creating a less contaminated environment around you. As our model shows, the amount of infectious virus you're exposed to has a big impact on your infection risk and the potential for others' masks to protect them as well."

Story Source:
Materials provided by University of Arizona. Original written by Mikayla Mace. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
  1. Amanda M. Wilson, Sarah E. Abney, Marco-Felipe King, Mark H. Weir, Martín López-García, Jonathan D. Sexton, Stephanie J. Dancer, Jessica Proctor, Catherine J. Noakes, Kelly A. Reynolds. COVID-19 and non-traditional mask use: How do various materials compare in reducing the infection risk for mask wearers? Journal of Hospital Infection, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.036

Boy or girl? It's in the father's genes

Boy or girl? It's in the father's genes

A Newcastle University study involving thousands of families is helping prospective parents work out whether they are likely to have sons or daughters.
The work by Corry Gellatly, a research scientist at the university, has shown that men inherit a tendency to have more sons or more daughters from their parents. This means that a man with many brothers is more likely to have sons, while a man with many sisters is more likely to have daughters.
The research involved a study of 927 family trees containing information on 556,387 people from North America and Europe going back to 1600.
"The family tree study showed that whether you’re likely to have a boy or a girl is inherited. We now know that men are more likely to have sons if they have more brothers but are more likely to have daughters if they have more sisters. However, in women, you just can’t predict it," Mr Gellatly explains.
Men determine the sex of a baby depending on whether their sperm is carrying an X or Y chromosome. An X chromosome combines with the mother’s X chromosome to make a baby girl (XX) and a Y chromosome will combine with the mother’s to make a boy (XY).
The Newcastle University study suggests that an as-yet undiscovered gene controls whether a man’s sperm contains more X or more Y chromosomes, which affects the sex of his children. On a larger scale, the number of men with more X sperm compared to the number of men with more Y sperm affects the sex ratio of children born each year.
Sons or daughters?
A gene consists of two parts, known as alleles, one inherited from each parent. In his paper, Mr Gellatly demonstrates that it is likely men carry two different types of allele, which results in three possible combinations in a gene that controls the ratio of X and Y sperm;
  • Men with the first combination, known as mm, produce more Y sperm and have more sons.
  • The second, known as mf, produce a roughly equal number of X and Y sperm and have an approximately equal number of sons and daughters.
  • The third, known as ff produce more X sperm and have more daughters.
“The gene that is passed on from both parents, which causes some men to have more sons and some to have more daughters, may explain why we see the number of men and women roughly balanced in a population. If there are too many males in the population, for example, females will more easily find a mate, so men who have more daughters will pass on more of their genes, causing more females to be born in later generations,” says Newcastle University researcher Mr Gellatly.
More boys born after the wars
In many of the countries that fought in the World Wars, there was a sudden increase in the number of boys born afterwards. The year after World War I ended, an extra two boys were born for every 100 girls in the UK, compared to the year before the war started. The gene, which Mr Gellatly has described in his research, could explain why this happened.
As the odds were in favour of men with more sons seeing a son return from the war, those sons were more likely to father boys themselves because they inherited that tendency from their fathers. In contrast, men with more daughters may have lost their only sons in the war and those sons would have been more likely to father girls. This would explain why the men that survived the war were more likely to have male children, which resulted in the boy-baby boom.
In most countries, for as long as records have been kept, more boys than girls have been born. In the UK and US, for example, there are currently about 105 males born for every 100 females.
It is well-documented that more males die in childhood and before they are old enough to have children. So in the same way that the gene may cause more boys to be born after wars, it may also cause more boys to be born each year.
How does the gene work?
The trees (above) illustrate how the gene works. It is a simplified example, in which men either have only sons, only daughters, or equal numbers of each, though in reality it is less clear cut. It shows that although the gene has no effect in females, they also carry the gene and pass it to their children.
In the first family tree (A) the grandfather is mm, so all his children are male. He only passes on the m allele, so his children are more likely to have the mm combination of alleles themselves. As a result, those sons may also have only sons (as shown). The grandsons have the mf combination of alleles, because they inherited an m from their father and an f from their mother. As a result, they have an equal number of sons and daughters (the great grandchildren).
In the second tree (B) the grandfather is ff, so all his children are female, they have the ff combination of alleles because their father and mother were both ff. One of the female children has her own children with a male who has the mm combination of alleles. That male determines the sex of the children, so the grandchildren are all male. The grandsons have the mf combination of alleles, because they inherited an m from their father and f from their mother. As a result, they have an equal number of sons and daughters (the great-grandchildren).

Story Source:
Materials provided by Newcastle UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
  1. Gellatly et al. Trends in Population Sex Ratios May be Explained by Changes in the Frequencies of Polymorphic Alleles of a Sex Ratio GeneEvolutionary Biology, Dec 11, 2008; DOI: 10.1007/s11692-008-9046-3

Vitamin D levels appear to play role in COVID-19 mortality rates

Vitamin D levels appear to play role in COVID-19 mortality rates

After studying global data from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have discovered a strong correlation between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality rates.
Led by Northwestern University, the research team conducted a statistical analysis of data from hospitals and clinics across China, France, Germany, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States.
The researchers noted that patients from countries with high COVID-19 mortality rates, such as Italy, Spain and the UK, had lower levels of vitamin D compared to patients in countries that were not as severely affected.
This does not mean that everyone -- especially those without a known deficiency -- needs to start hoarding supplements, the researchers caution.
"While I think it is important for people to know that vitamin D deficiency might play a role in mortality, we don't need to push vitamin D on everybody," said Northwestern's Vadim Backman, who led the research. "This needs further study, and I hope our work will stimulate interest in this area. The data also may illuminate the mechanism of mortality, which, if proven, could lead to new therapeutic targets."
The research is available on medRxiv, a preprint server for health sciences.
Backman is the Walter Dill Scott Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering. Ali Daneshkhah, a postdoctoral research associate in Backman's laboratory, is the paper's first author.
Backman and his team were inspired to examine vitamin D levels after noticing unexplained differences in COVID-19 mortality rates from country to country. Some people hypothesized that differences in healthcare quality, age distributions in population, testing rates or different strains of the coronavirus might be responsible. But Backman remained skeptical.
"None of these factors appears to play a significant role," Backman said. "The healthcare system in northern Italy is one of the best in the world. Differences in mortality exist even if one looks across the same age group. And, while the restrictions on testing do indeed vary, the disparities in mortality still exist even when we looked at countries or populations for which similar testing rates apply.
"Instead, we saw a significant correlation with vitamin D deficiency," he said.
By analyzing publicly available patient data from around the globe, Backman and his team discovered a strong correlation between vitamin D levels and cytokine storm -- a hyperinflammatory condition caused by an overactive immune system -- as well as a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and mortality.
"Cytokine storm can severely damage lungs and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients," Daneshkhah said. "This is what seems to kill a majority of COVID-19 patients, not the destruction of the lungs by the virus itself. It is the complications from the misdirected fire from the immune system."
This is exactly where Backman believes vitamin D plays a major role. Not only does vitamin D enhance our innate immune systems, it also prevents our immune systems from becoming dangerously overactive. This means that having healthy levels of vitamin D could protect patients against severe complications, including death, from COVID-19.
"Our analysis shows that it might be as high as cutting the mortality rate in half," Backman said. "It will not prevent a patient from contracting the virus, but it may reduce complications and prevent death in those who are infected."
Backman said this correlation might help explain the many mysteries surrounding COVID-19, such as why children are less likely to die. Children do not yet have a fully developed acquired immune system, which is the immune system's second line of defense and more likely to overreact.
"Children primarily rely on their innate immune system," Backman said. "This may explain why their mortality rate is lower."
Backman is careful to note that people should not take excessive doses of vitamin D, which might come with negative side effects. He said the subject needs much more research to know how vitamin D could be used most effectively to protect against COVID-19 complications.
"It is hard to say which dose is most beneficial for COVID-19," Backman said. "However, it is clear that vitamin D deficiency is harmful, and it can be easily addressed with appropriate supplementation. This might be another key to helping protect vulnerable populations, such as African-American and elderly patients, who have a prevalence of vitamin D deficiency."
Backman is the director of Northwestern's Center for Physical Genomics and Engineering and the associate director for Research Technology and Infrastructure at the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center at Northwestern University.

Story Source:
Materials provided by Northwestern University. Original written by Amanda Morris. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:
  1. Ali Daneshkhah, Vasundhara Agrawal, Adam Eshein, Hariharan Subramanian, Hemant Kumar Roy, Vadim Backman. The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 PatientsmedRxiv, Posted April 30, 2020; [link]